Interfaces and Unions

Angular: The Full Gamut Edition

Charlie Greenman
September 17, 2020
3 min read

In GraphQL, and more in particular because we are working on things from the UI side of things, a Union type gives us the ability for one field to contain more than one field. The best way to really think of it is in terms of Typescript. A union type would be:

  type Book {
    title: String

  type Author {
    name: String

  type Result = Book | Author;

  type Query {
    search: [Result]

As we can see, it is telling us that it can be one of the other with regards to data type. So instead of returning irrelevant data, we only return the data we need. This is beneficial for a number of reasons.

  1. It lightens payloads

  2. Allows for succint sorting, on front end. I.e. do not have to sort from the backend.

    Using Unions with Apollo Client

This is where at this time things start to get really interesting. Using Apollo with unions/interfaces starts to become tricky. In particular, the client has no idea what is going on from the server side of things. Once we have different sorts of data for a singular query coming back based on the type of data available, Apollo Client will just assume it is a certain type if it returns all data for a specific type.

Apollo made the decision to use something called the IntrospectionFragmentMatcher. It will look something like this:

const fragmentMatcher = new IntrospectionFragmentMatcher({
  introspectionQueryResultData: {
    __schema: {
      types: [
          kind: 'INTERFACE',
          name: 'User',
          possibleTypes: [
            { name: 'User' },
            { name: 'UserWithReason' },
            { name: 'UserWithRound' },
            { name: 'UserWithBid' },

It tells Apollo Client for Angular that it expects the above types in the interface for User. Where it starts to get really interesting is that Apollo Client requires for IntrospectionFragmentMatcher to be used regardless. So, in their documentation they recommend that a script be used at build time, that creates a JSON file. This JSON file should then be used in the IntrospectionFragmentMatcher. This is very cumbersome, because if backend decides to throw something in for an already existing interface, it will cause the backend to break for that query.

If you do not have an IntrospectionFragmentMatcher set up in your app, and backend adds union, or interface types, it will cause that data to break, and it will return an empty object.

What to Know Ahead of Time

What would be really helpful to know ahead of time is that this is an issue that can only be solved by DevOps. It requires that back end and front end are built at the same time. That way, they both get pushed only once the new script is there. In this situation, there really is no way about it. Having a mono repo architecture across your company will greatly alleviate this process. [^1]

[^1]: I have created this issue to bring awareness to this issue, but nothing so far

Subscribe to the Razroo Angular Newsletter!

Razroo takes pride in it's Angular newsletter, and we really pour heart and soul into it. Pass along your e-mail to recieve it in the mail. Our commitment, is to keep you up to date with the latest in Angular, so you don't have to.

More articles similar to this


Razroo is committed towards contributing to open source. Take the pledge towards open source by tweeting, #itaketherazroopledge to @_Razroo on twitter. One of our associates will get back to you and set you up with an open source project to work on.